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    1. Russian Medical Academy of Continuous Professional Education (Moscow, Russian Federation)
    2. State Scientific Centre of Coloproctology (Moscow, Russian Federation)
    3. NRC Institute of Immunology FMBA of Russia (Moscow, Russian Federation)

    Keywords:ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, microbiome

    Abstract:The review deals modern ideas about state of microbiome in healthy people and its change in inflammatory bowel disease.

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    Full text is published :
    Loranskaya I.D., Khalif I.L., Boldyreva M.N., Kupaeva V.A. CHARACTERISTIC OF MICROBIOME IN INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE (REVIEW). Experimental and Clinical Gastroenterology Journal. 2018;153(05):104-111
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    1. A. I. Yevdokimov Moscow state university of medicine and dentistry (Moscow, Russian Federation)
    2. Penza state university (Penza, Russian Federation)
    3. Infectious Clinical Hospital № 2 of the Moscow Department of Health care (Moscow, Russian Federation)

    Keywords:HIV-infection, viral hepatitis, remaxol

    Abstract:The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of remaxol long-term use in HIV-infected patients with chronic viral hepatitis. The results of observation and treatment of 46 HIV-infected patients with diffuse liver damage of a viral etiology (chronic hepatitis C and / or B) were analyzed. Patients were divided into two groups, depending on the treatment regimen. 16 patients of the first group were treated with remaxol (intravenous drip 400 ml daily for 12 days, 2-4 times a year at intervals of 3-6 months) and patients of the second group received standard symptomatic therapy. No specific treatment of HIV was carried out before remaxol prescription. The effectiveness of the therapy was evaluated by clinical, biochemical (liver enzymatic activity) and instrumental (elastography including an assessment of fibrosis levels with METAVIR scale). Inclusion of Remaxol in complex therapy of HIV-infected patients with hepatic damage of viral etiology (CHC and / or CHB) stabilized patients’ general condition. It shows hepatoprotective effect, which is manifested by severity of specific symptoms and enzymatic activity decrease, as well as fibrotic changes in liver tissue. To illustrate this, we describe a clinical case of long-term treatment of a patient using remaxol. The revealed positive effect of remaxol on condition of HIV-infected patients with diffuse liver lesions allows to recommend inclusion of the drug in therapy regimens of these patients.

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    Full text is published :
    Sundukov A.V., Mel’nikov L.V., Alikeeva G.K., Vdovina E.T., Safiullina N.Kh. HEPATOPROTECTIVE THERAPY FOR DIFFUSION LIVER DISEASES IN HIV-INFECTED PATIENTS. Experimental and Clinical Gastroenterology Journal. 2018;153(05):112-116
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    1. FSBI “A. N. Ryzhykh State scientific center of coloproctology” of Ministry of health of Russian Federation
    2. FSBEI FPE RMACPE MOH Russia (Moscow, Russian Federation)
    3. Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University (RNRMU) (Moscow, Russian Federation)

    Keywords: impedance planimetric technique, anal sphincter deficiency, pelvic floor muscles, high resolution anorectal manometry, elasticity, extensibility, intraluminal imaging probe EndoFLIP

    Abstract:The article gives an overview of publications on the use of impedance planimetric method in the study of anorectal function. Anal sphincters normally respond reflexively to the stretching of the rectum by intestinal contents that fill and stretch the rectum. The idea of the method lies in the fact that is artificial stretching of the anal canal with simultaneous recording of pressure and building a virtual geometric shape directly in response to the tension, and calculates a coefficient of elasticity of the anal canal that quantitatively characterize the response of the anal sphincter in tension. For the first time in Russia, it became possible to use this method in coloproctological patients in the State Scietific Centre of Coloproctology. In the article step by step assessed the main uses of the techniques described in the literature: the description of the method and normative values, then - comparison of extensibility of anal sphincters at rest and with voluntary reduction in norm in volunteers and patients with anal incontinence, including patients with scleroderma, then compared the results of this technique with high-resolution 3D manometry. In addition, the use of the Endoflip method as a dynamic control of the treatment of anal sphincter failure by means of sacral stimulation is analyzed.

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    Full text is published :
    Fomenko O.Yu., Shelygin Yu.A., Poryadin G.V., Mudrov A.A. PLANIMETRIC IMPEDANCEOMETRY IN ASSESSMENT OF THE FUNCTIONAL STATE OF ANAL SPHINCATORS. Experimental and Clinical Gastroenterology Journal. 2018;153(05):117-122
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    1. Volgograd state medical University (Volgograd, Russian Federation)

    Keywords: whipple’s disease, intestinal lipodystrophy, maladsorption syndrome, maldigestion syndrome, Tropheryma nodes whippeli lumen, polyarthralgia, abdominal pain, polyarthralgia, polyserositis, adrenal insufficiency, endocarditis, antibiotic therapy

    Abstract:This review focuses on the clinical picture, approaches to diagnosis and therapy of Whipple’s disease.

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    Full text is published :
    Skvortsov V. V., Tumarenko A. V., Pavlov V. K. DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF WHIPPLE’S DISEASE. Experimental and Clinical Gastroenterology Journal. 2018;153(05):123-127
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    1. North –Western State Medical University named after I. I. Mechnikov (St. Petersburg, Russian Federation)

    Keywords: colon, pathology, mucous membrane

    Abstract:The review contains articles analyzing the structural changes in the epithelium mucous membrane of various parts of the large intestine of humans under normal and some clinical pathology. Analysis of structural changes revealed main characteristics in the dystrophic and regenerative processes developing in epithelium. Changes in the epithelium capture some structures (microvilli, cellular contacts, organelles, nucleus) forming its cells and are nonspecific. They differ in the degree of severity, which depends on the severity of the disease and the individual characteristics of the organism.

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    Churkova M.L., Kostyukevich S.V. THE EPITHELIUM MUCOSAL OF COLON IN NORMAL AND IN FUNCTIONAL AND INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES. Experimental and Clinical Gastroenterology Journal. 2018;153(05):128-132
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    1. Federal State Budget Educational Institution of Higher Education “Samara State Medical University” of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation (Samara, Russian Federation)

    Keywords: Microbiota, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, non-alcoholic fatty disease of the pancreas, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome

    Abstract:Aim of the review. Present at the modern level of the development of medicine information on the role of the microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract in the formation of pathology of internal organs and the prospects for correcting the disturbed microbial balance. It is shown that a change in the gastrointestinal microbiota can be associated with various diseases of the internal organs. The most complex issue that needs to be addressed is to determine the coefficient of participation of the bacterial overgrowth factor and the role of individual microbiota in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, non-alcoholic pancreatic fatty disease, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, which is due to the current insufficiency evidence base. It is necessary to conduct large randomized controlled trials on the role of normal gastrointestinal microbiota in the prevention and treatment of these diseases. It seems promising to improve and introduce new methods for restoring the microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract by creating preparations containing bacteriocines aimed at eradication of the target microorganism and vaccines capable of preventing the infection with pathogenic microorganisms.

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    Osadchuk A. M., Davydkin I. L., Gricenko T. A., Lebedeva E. A., Petrushin A. E. THE ROLE OF THE MICROBIOTA OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF DISEASES OF INTERNAL ORGANS. Experimental and Clinical Gastroenterology Journal. 2018;153(05):133-139
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    1. Military Medical Academy named after S. M. Kirov (St. Petersburg, Russian Federation)

    Keywords: inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), Crohn’s disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), pathogenesis of IBD, imun, genome, exposome, NOD2/CARD15 gene, IL-23R gene, autophagy, T-cell, microbiome, intestinal microbiota, rebiosis

    Abstract:The relevance of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is caused by the growth of primary morbidity, as well as the lack of identity of the mechanisms of their pathogenesis. The purpose of this review - to consider the basic and most fundamental laws of genome changes, the immune system, the role and participation of intestinal microflora in the pathogenesis of these diseases. The report is a synthesis of the accumulated information about the relationship of genetic, immunological and exposomes concept, their role and influence on the development of IBD. Results. It is concluded that the pathogenetic cascade of inflammation in IBD begins with changes in microbiota and the appearance of unknown antigens in the intestine, which, in certain genetically determined defects of the immune system, initiate a cascade of inflammatory reactions that form a clinical picture of Crohn’s disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC). The pathogenesis of IBD is unambiguously linked to changes in environmental factors. Conclusion. The most promising targets for therapeutic intervention in the near future to reduce inflammatory reactions will be intestinal microflora and diet.

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    Pershko A. M., Grinevich V. B., Solovyov I. A., Shotik A. V., Kurilo D. P. PRIVATE THE PATHOGENESIS OF INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES. Experimental and Clinical Gastroenterology Journal. 2018;153(05):140-149
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